The Lancet Commissions
The Global Syndemic of Obesity, Undernutrition, and Climate Change: The Lancet Commission report.
Prof Boyd A Swinburn MD, Vivica I Kraak PhD, Prof Steven Allender PhD, Vincent J Atkins, Phillip I Baker PhD, Jessica R Bogard PhD, Hannah Brinsden, Alejandro Calvillo, Prof Olivier De Schutter PhD, Raji Devarajank, Prof Majid Ezzat FMedSci, Prof Sharon Friel PhD, Shifalika Goenka PhD, Ross A Hammond PhD, Prof Gerard Hastings PhD, Prof Corinna Hawkes PhD, Mario Herrero PhD, Prof Peter S Hovmand PhD, …Prof William H Dietz MD.
Malnutrition in all its forms, including obesity, undernutrition, and other dietary risks, is the leading cause of poor health globally. In the near future, the health effects of climate change will considerably compound these health challenges. Climate change can be considered a pandemic because of its sweeping effects on the health of humans and the natural systems we depend on (ie, planetary health). These three pandemics—obesity, undernutrition, and climate change—represent The Global Syndemic that affects most people in every country and region worldwide. They constitute a syndemic, or synergy of epidemics, because they co-occur in time and place, interact with each other to produce complex sequelae, and share common underlying societal drivers. This Commission recommends comprehensive actions to address obesity within the context of The Global Syndemic, which represents the paramount health challenge for humans, the environment, and our planet in the 21st century.