April 6 | 2020

Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Carotid Plaque Burden in a Canadian City With Low-Level Ambient Pollution.

Johnson M, Brook JR, Brook RD, Oiamo TH, Luginaah I, Peters PA, Spence JD.

J Am Heart Assoc. 2020 Apr 7;9(7):e013400. Epub 2020 Apr 2. DOI 10.1161/JAHA.119.013400

 

Abstract

Background:

The association between fine particulate matter and cardiovascular disease has been convincingly demonstrated. The role of traffic-related air pollutants is less clear. To better understand the role of traffic-related air pollutants in cardiovascular disease development, we examined associations between NO2, carotid atherosclerotic plaque, and cardiometabolic disorders associated with cardiovascular disease.

Methods and Results:

Cross-sectional analyses were conducted among 2227 patients (62.9±13.8 years; 49.5% women) from the Stroke Prevention and Atherosclerosis Research Centre (SPARC) in London, Ontario, Canada. Total carotid plaque area measured by ultrasound, cardiometabolic disorders, and residential locations were provided by SPARC medical records. Long-term outdoor residential NO2 concentrations were generated by a land use regression model. Associations between NO2, total carotid plaque area, and cardiometabolic disorders were examined using multiple regression models adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and socioeconomic status. Mean NO2 was 5.4±1.6 ppb in London, Ontario. NO2 was associated with a significant increase in plaque (3.4 mm2 total carotid plaque area per 1 ppb NO2), exhibiting a linear dose-response. NO2 was also positively associated with triglycerides, total cholesterol, and the ratio of low- to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P<0.05). Diabetes mellitus mediated the relationship between NO2 and total carotid plaque area (P<0.05).

Conclusions:

Our results demonstrate that even low levels of traffic-related air pollutants are linked to atherosclerotic plaque burden, an association that may be partially attributable to pollution-induced diabetes mellitus. Our findings suggest that reducing ambient concentrations in cities with NO2 below current standards would result in additional health benefits. Given the billions of people exposed to traffic emissions, our study supports the global public health significance of reducing air pollution.

March 30 | 2020

Air pollution and stunting: a missing link?

Sheela S Sinharoy, Thomas Clasen, Reynaldo Martorell.

 

The Lancet Global Health Comment Volume 8, Issue 4, April 2020, Pages e472-e475

https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30063-2

 

Child linear growth impairment, particularly stunting, remains a global health challenge. Stunting is defined as a height-for-age Z-score more than two SDs below the WHO child growth standards reference median for age and sex. The number of children younger than 5 years who are stunted was 59 million (34%) in south Asia and 58 million (33%) in sub-Saharan Africa in 2018.1 Stunting is associated with poor child development, lower productivity and earnings in adulthood, and increased risk of chronic diseases later in life.2, 3 In this Comment, we argue that air pollution has been largely ignored as a potentially important cause of stunting, we outline a conceptual framework for how air pollution might lead to impaired linear growth in children, and we call for additional research into these mechanisms.

March 23 | 2020

Projected local rain events due to climate change and the impacts on waterborne diseases in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Bimal K. Chhetri, Eleni Galanis, Stephen Sobie, Jordan Brubacher, Robert Balshaw, Michael Otterstatter, Sunny Mak, Marcus Lem, Mark Lysyshyn, Trevor Murdock, Manon Fleury, Kirsten Zickfeld, Mark Zubel, Len Clarkson, Tim K. Takaro

Environmental Health volume 18, Article number: 116 (2019) https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0387512

 

Abstract

Background

Climate change is increasing the number and intensity of extreme weather events in many parts of the world. Precipitation extremes have been linked to both outbreaks and sporadic cases of waterborne illness. We have previously shown a link between heavy rain and turbidity to population-level risk of sporadic cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis in a major Canadian urban population. The risk increased with 30 or more dry days in the 60 days preceding the week of extreme rain. The goal of this study was to investigate the change in cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis risk due to climate change, primarily change in extreme precipitation.

Methods

Cases of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis were extracted from a reportable disease system (1997–2009). We used distributed lag non-linear Poisson regression models and projections of the exposure-outcome relationship to estimate future illness (2020–2099). The climate projections are derived from twelve statistically downscaled regional climate models. Relative Concentration Pathway 8.5 was used to project precipitation derived from daily gridded weather observation data (~ 6 × 10 km resolution) covering the central of three adjacent watersheds serving metropolitan Vancouver for the 2020s, 2040s, 2060s and 2080s.

Results

Precipitation is predicted to steadily increase in these watersheds during the wet season (Oct. -Mar.) and decrease in other parts of the year up through the 2080s. More weeks with extreme rain (>90th percentile) are expected. These weeks are predicted to increase the annual rates of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis by approximately 16% by the 2080s corresponding to an increase of 55–136 additional cases per year depending upon the climate model used. The predicted increase in the number of waterborne illness cases are during the wet months. The range in future projections compared to historical monthly case counts typically differed by 10–20% across climate models but the direction of change was consistent for all models.

Discussion

If new water filtration measures had not been implemented in our study area in 2010–2015, the risk of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis would have been expected to increase with climate change, particularly precipitation changes. In addition to the predicted increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme precipitation events, the frequency and length of wet and dry spells could also affect the risk of waterborne diseases as we observed in the historical period. These findings add to the growing evidence regarding the need to prepare water systems to manage and become resilient to climate change-related health risks.

March 8 | 2020

Ambient air pollution and incidence of early-onset paediatric type 1 diabetes: A retrospective population-based cohort study.

Elten M, Donelle J, Lima I, Burnett RT, Weichenthal S, Stieb DM, Hystad P, van Donkelaar A, Chen H, Paul LA, Crighton E, Martin RV, Decou ML, Luo W, Lavigne É.

Environ Res. 2020 Feb 22;184:109291.[Epub ahead of print] DOI:10.1016/j.envres.2020.109291

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Studies have reported increasing incidence rates of paediatric diabetes, especially among those aged 0-5 years. Epidemiological evidence linking ambient air pollution to paediatric diabetes remains mixed.

OBJECTIVE:

This study investigated the association between maternal and early-life exposures to common air pollutants (NO2, PM2.5, O3, and oxidant capacity [Ox; the redox-weighted average of O3 and NO2]) and the incidence of paediatric diabetes in children up to 6 years of age.

METHODS:

All registered singleton births in Ontario, Ca nada occurring between April 1st, 2006 and March 31st, 2012 were included through linkage from health administrative data. Monthly exposures to NO2, PM2.5, O3, and Ox were estimated across trimesters, the entire pregnancy period and during childhood. Random effects Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the relationships with paediatric diabetes incidence while controlling for important covariates. We also modelled the shape of concentration-response (CR) relationships.

RESULTS:

There were 1094 children out of a cohort of 754,698 diagnosed with diabetes before the age of six. O3 exposures during the first trimester of pregnancy were associated with paediatric diabetes incidence (hazard ratio (HR) per interquartile (IQR) increase = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.04-3.86). The CR relationship between O3 during the first trimester and paediatric diabetes incidence appeared to have a risk threshold, in which there was little-to-no risk below 25 ppb of O3, while above this level risk increased sigmoidally. No other associations were observed.

CONCLUSION:

O3 exposures during a critical period of development were associated with an increased risk of paediatric diabetes incidence.

February 27 | 2020

Efficient Removal of Ultrafine Particles from Diesel Exhaust by Selected Tree Species: Implications for Roadside Planting for Improving the Quality of Urban Air. 

Wang H, Maher BA, Ahmed IA, Davison B.

Environ Sci Technol. 2019 Jun 18;53(12):6906-6916. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.8b06629 Epub 2019 May 28.

 

Abstract

Human exposure to airborne ultrafine (≪1 μm) particulate pollution may pose substantial hazards to human health, particularly in urban roadside environments where very large numbers of people are frequently exposed to vehicle-derived ultrafine particles (UFPs). For mitigation purposes, it is timely and important to quantify the deposition of traffic-derived UFPs onto leaves of selected plant species, with particularly efficient particle capture (high deposition velocity), which can be installed curbside, proximal to the emitting vehicular sources. Here, we quantify the size-resolved capture efficiency of UFPs from diesel vehicle exhaust by nine temperate-zone plant species, in wind tunnel experiments. The results show that silver birch (79% UFP removal), yew (71%), and elder (70.5%) have very high capabilities for capture of airborne UFPs. Metal concentrations and metal enrichment ratios in leaf leachates were also highest for the postexposure silver birch leaves; scanning electron microscopy showed that UFPs were concentrated along the hairs of these leaves. For all but two species, magnetic measurements demonstrated substantial increases in the concentration of magnetic particles deposited on the leaves after exposure to the exhaust particulates. Together, these new data show that leaf-deposition of UFPs is chiefly responsible for the substantial reductions in particle numbers measured downwind of the vegetation. It is critical to recognize that the deposition velocity of airborne particulate matter (PM) to leaves is species-specific and often substantially higher (∼10 to 50 times higher) than the “standard” Vd values (e.g., 0.1-0.64 cm s-1 for PM2.5) used in most modeling studies. The use of such low Vd values in models results in a major under-estimation of PM removal by roadside vegetation and thus misrepresents the efficacy of selected vegetation species in the substantial (≫20%) removal of PM. Given the potential hazard to health posed by UFPs and the removal efficiencies shown here (and by previous roadside measurements), roadside planting (maintained at or below head height) of selected species at PM “hotspots” can contribute substantially and quickly to improve in urban air quality and reductions in human exposure. These findings can contribute to the development and implementation of mitigation policies of traffic-derived PM on an international scale.

February 18 | 2020

Association of use of cleaning products with respiratory health in a Canadian birth cohort.

Jaclyn Parks, Lawrence McCandless, Christoffer Dharma, Jeffrey Brook, Stuart E. Turvey, Piush Mandhane, Allan B. Becker, Anita L. Kozyrskyj, Meghan B. Azad, Theo J. Moraes, Diana L. Lefebvre, Malcolm R. Sears, Padmaja Subbarao, James Scott and Tim K. Takaro.

CMAJ February 18, 2020 192 (7) E154-E161; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.190819

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Comprehensive longitudinal studies are important for understanding the complex risk factors, pathways, exposures and interactions that lead to the development and persistence of asthma. We aimed to examine associations between use of household cleaning products in early life and childhood respiratory and allergic disease using data from the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) Cohort Study.

METHODS: We summed responses from parental questionnaires that indicated the frequency of use of 26 household cleaning products in the homes of 2022 children from this birth cohort when they were 3–4 months of age to create a cumulative Frequency of Use Score (FUS). We used multivariable logistic regression models to assess whether frequent compared with less frequent use was associated with recurrent wheeze, atopy or asthma diagnosis, as defined by the questionnaire and clinical assessments at age 3 years. Data were collected between 2008 and 2015.

RESULTS: Children in homes with a higher frequency of use of cleaning products in infancy, as determined by an interquartile range increase, had higher odds of recurrent wheeze (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11–1.64), recurrent wheeze with atopy (adjusted OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.02–2.16) and asthma diagnosis (adjusted OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.09–1.70), but no increase in the odds of atopy at age 3 years (adjusted OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.96–1.35). Compared with the lowest tertile of FUS exposure, infants in the highest tertile had higher odds of acquiring asthma. Stratification of the results showed that females had higher ORs than males for all outcomes, although the p values for this sex difference did not reach statistical significance.

INTERPRETATION: Frequent use of household cleaning products in early life was associated with an increased risk for childhood wheeze and asthma but not atopy at age 3 years. Our findings add to the understanding of how early life exposures to cleaning products may be associated with the development of allergic airway disease and help to identify household behaviours as a potential area for intervention.

January 27 | 2020

Road proximity, air pollution, noise, green space and neurologic disease incidence: a population-based cohort study.

Yuchi W, Sbihi H, Davies H, Tamburic L, Brauer M.

Environ Health. 2020 Jan 21;19(1):8. DOI:10.1186/s12940-020-0565-4

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Emerging evidence links road proximity and air pollution with cognitive impairment. Joint effects of noise and greenness have not been evaluated. We investigated associations between road proximity and exposures to air pollution, and joint effects of noise and greenness, on non-Alzheimer’s dementia, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease and multiple sclerosis within a population-based cohort.

METHODS:

We assembled administrative health database cohorts of 45-84 year old residents (N ~ 678,000) of Metro Vancouver, Canada. Cox proportional hazards models were built to assess associations between exposures and non-Alzheimer’s dementia and Parkinson’s disease. Given reduced case numbers, associations with Alzheimer’s disease and multiple sclerosis were evaluated in nested case-control analyses by conditional logistic regression.

RESULTS:

Road proximity was associated with all outcomes (e.g. non-Alzheimer’s dementia hazard ratio: 1.14, [95% confidence interval: 1.07-1.20], for living < 50 m from a major road or < 150 m from a highway). Air pollutants were associated with incidence of Parkinson’s disease and non-Alzheimer’s dementia (e.g. Parkinson’s disease hazard ratios of 1.09 [1.02-1.16], 1.03 [0.97-1.08], 1.12 [1.05-1.20] per interquartile increase in fine particulate matter, Black Carbon, and nitrogen dioxide) but not Alzheimer’s disease or multiple sclerosis. Noise was not associated with any outcomes while associations with greenness suggested protective effects for Parkinson’s disease and non-Alzheimer’s dementia.

CONCLUSIONS:

Road proximity was associated with incidence of non-Alzheimer’s dementia, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and multiple sclerosis. This association may be partially mediated by air pollution, whereas noise exposure did not affect associations. There was some evidence of protective effects of greenness.

January 21 | 2020

Global trends toward urban street-network sprawl.

Barrington-Leigh C, Millard-Ball A.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 Jan 14. pii: 201905232. [Epub ahead of print] DOI:10.1073/pnas.1905232116

 

Abstract

We present a global time series of street-network sprawl-that is, sprawl as measured through the local connectivity of the street network. Using high-resolution data from OpenStreetMap and a satellite-derived time series of urbanization, we compute and validate changes over time in multidimensional street connectivity measures based on graph-theoretic and geographic concepts. We report on global, national, and city-level trends since 1975 in the street-network disconnectedness index (SNDi), based on every mapped node and edge in the world. Streets in new developments in 90% of the 134 most populous countries have become less connected since 1975, while just 29% show an improving trend since 2000. The same period saw a near doubling in the relative frequency of a street-network type characterized by high circuity, typical of gated communities. We identify persistence in street-network sprawl, indicative of path-dependent processes. Specifically, cities and countries with low connectivity in recent years also had relatively low preexisting connectivity in our earliest time period. We discuss implications for policy intervention in road building in new and expanding cities as a top priority for sustainable urban development.

January 14 | 2020

Mortality-Air Pollution Associations in Low-Exposure Environments (MAPLE): Phase 1.

Brauer M, Brook JR, Christidis T, Chu Y, Crouse DL, Erickson A, Hystad P, Li C, Martin RV, Meng J, Pappin AJ, Pinault LL, Tjepkema M, van Donkelaar A, Weichenthal S, Burnett RT.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst. 2019 Nov;(203):1-87. https://www.healtheffects.org/system/files/brauer-rr-203-phase1-report_0.pdf

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Fine particulate matter (particulate matter ≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter, or PM2.5) is associated with mortality, but the lower range of relevant concentrations is unknown. Novel satellite-derived estimates of outdoor PM2.5 concentrations were applied to several large population-based cohorts, and the shape of the relationship with nonaccidental mortality was characterized, with emphasis on the low concentrations (<12 μg/m3) observed throughout Canada.

METHODS:

Annual satellite-derived estimates of outdoor PM2.5 concentrations were developed at 1-km2 spatial resolution across Canada for 2000-2016 and backcasted to 1981 using remote sensing, chemical transport models, and ground monitoring data. Targeted ground-based measurements were conducted to measure the relationship between columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD) and ground-level PM2.5. Both existing and targeted ground-based measurements were analyzed to develop improved exposure data sets for subsequent epidemiological analyses.

Residential histories derived from annual tax records were used to estimate PM2.5 exposures for subjects whose ages ranged from 25 to 90 years. About 8.5 million were from three Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC) analytic files and another 540,900 were Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) participants. Mortality was linked through the year 2016. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated with Cox Proportional Hazard models using a 3-year moving average exposure with a 1-year lag, with the year of follow-up as the time axis. All models were stratified by 5-year age groups, sex, and immigrant status. Covariates were based on directed acyclical graphs (DAG), and included contextual variables (airshed, community size, neighborhood dependence, neighborhood deprivation, ethnic concentration, neighborhood instability, and urban form). A second model was examined including the DAG-based covariates as well as all subject-level risk factors (income, education, marital status, indigenous identity, employment status, occupational class, and visible minority status) available in each cohort. Additional subject-level behavioral covariates (fruit and vegetable consumption, leisure exercise frequency, alcohol consumption, smoking, and body mass index [BMI]) were included in the CCHS analysis.

Sensitivity analyses evaluated adjustment for covariates and gaseous copollutants (nitrogen dioxide [NO2] and ozone [O3]), as well as exposure time windows and spatial scales. Estimates were evaluated across strata of age, sex, and immigrant status. The shape of the PM2.5-mortality association was examined by first fitting restricted cubic splines (RCS) with a large number of knots and then fitting the shape-constrained health impact function (SCHIF) to the RCS predictions and their standard errors (SE). This method provides graphical results indicating the RCS predictions, as a nonparametric means of characterizing the concentration-response relationship in detail and the resulting mean SCHIF and accompanying uncertainty as a parametric summary.

Sensitivity analyses were conducted in the CCHS cohort to evaluate the potential influence of unmeasured covariates on air pollution risk estimates. Specifically, survival models with all available risk factors were fit and compared with models that omitted covariates not available in the CanCHEC cohorts. In addition, the PM2.5 risk estimate in the CanCHEC cohort was indirectly adjusted for multiple individual-level risk factors by estimating the association between PM2.5 and these covariates within the CCHS.

RESULTS:

Satellite-derived PM2.5 estimates were low and highly correlated with ground monitors. HR estimates (per 10-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5) were similar for the 1991 (1.041, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.016-1.066) and 1996 (1.041, 1.024-1.059) CanCHEC cohorts with a larger estimate observed for the 2001 cohort (1.084, 1.060-1.108). The pooled cohort HR estimate was 1.053 (1.041-1.065). In the CCHS an analogous model indicated a HR of 1.13 (95% CI: 1.06-1.21), which was reduced slightly with the addition of behavioral covariates (1.11, 1.04-1.18). In each of the CanCHEC cohorts, the RCS increased rapidly over lower concentrations, slightly declining between the 25th and 75th percentiles and then increasing beyond the 75th percentile. The steepness of the increase in the RCS over lower concentrations diminished as the cohort start date increased. The SCHIFs displayed a supralinear association in each of the three CanCHEC cohorts and in the CCHS cohort.

In sensitivity analyses conducted with the 2001 CanCHEC, longer moving averages (1, 3, and 8 years) and smaller spatial scales (1 km2 vs. 10 km2) of exposure assignment resulted in larger associations between PM2.5 and mortality. In both the CCHS and CanCHEC analyses, the relationship between nonaccidental mortality and PM2.5 was attenuated when O3 or a weighted measure of oxidant gases was included in models. In the CCHS analysis, but not in CanCHEC, PM2.5 HRs were also attenuated by the inclusion of NO2. Application of the indirect adjustment and comparisons within the CCHS analysis suggests that missing data on behavioral risk factors for mortality had little impact on the magnitude of PM2.5-mortality associations. While immigrants displayed improved overall survival compared with those born in Canada, their sensitivity to PM2.5 was similar to or larger than that for nonimmigrants, with differences between immigrants and nonimmigrants decreasing in the more recent cohorts.

CONCLUSIONS:

In several large population-based cohorts exposed to low levels of air pollution, consistent associations were observed between PM2.5 and nonaccidental mortality for concentrations as low as 5 μg/m3. This relationship was supralinear with no apparent threshold or sublinear association.

January 6 | 2020

Drop-And-Spin Virtual Neighborhood Auditing: Assessing Built Environment for Linkage to Health Studies.

Plascak JJ, Rundle AG, Babel RA, Llanos AAM, LaBelle CM, Stroup AM, Mooney SJ.

Am J Prev Med. 2020 Jan;58(1):152-160. DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2019.08.032

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Various built environment factors might influence certain health behaviors and outcomes. Reliable, resource-efficient methods that are feasible for assessing built environment characteristics across large geographies are needed for larger, more robust studies. This paper reports the item response prevalence, reliability, and rating time of a new virtual neighborhood audit protocol, drop-and-spin auditing, developed for assessment of walkability and physical disorder characteristics across large geographic areas.

METHODS:

Drop-and-spin auditing, a method where a Google Street View scene was rated by spinning 360° around a point location, was developed using a modified version of the virtual audit tool Computer Assisted Neighborhood Visual Assessment System. Approximately 8,000 locations within Essex County, New Jersey were assessed by 11 trained auditors. Using a standardized protocol, 32 built environment items per a location within Google Street View were audited. Test-retest and inter-rater κ statistics were from a 5% subsample of locations. Data were collected in 2017-2018 and analyzed in 2018.

RESULTS:

Roughly 70% of Google Street View scenes had sidewalks. Among those, two thirds were in good condition. At least 5 obvious items of garbage or litter were present in 41% of Google Street View scenes. Maximum test-retest reliability indicated substantial agreement (κ ≥0.61) for all items. Inter-rater reliability of each item, generally, was lower than test-retest reliability. The median time to rate each item was 7.3 seconds.

CONCLUSIONS:

Compared with segment-based protocols, drop-and-spin virtual neighborhood auditing is quicker and similarly reliable for assessing built environment characteristics. Assessment of large geographies may be more feasible using drop-and-spin virtual auditing.